Ecotourism Low-Impact

1 00:00:00,130 --> 00:00:05,240 Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively 2 00:00:05,240 --> 00:00:11,200 undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard 3 00:00:11,200 --> 00:00:16,720 commercial tourism. Its purpose may be to educate the traveler, to provide funds for 4 00:00:16,720 --> 00:00:22,259 ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment 5 00:00:22,259 --> 00:00:27,259 of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. 6 00:00:27,259 --> 00:00:33,250 Since the 1980s ecotourism has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, 7 00:00:33,250 --> 00:00:38,520 so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human 8 00:00:38,520 --> 00:00:43,960 intervention. Several university programs use this description as the working definition 9 00:00:43,960 --> 00:00:48,260 of ecotourism. Generally, ecotourism deals with living parts 10 00:00:48,260 --> 00:00:55,010 of the natural environments. Ecotourism focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, 11 00:00:55,010 --> 00:01:00,810 and environmental sustainability. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations 12 00:01:00,810 --> 00:01:06,890 where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is 13 00:01:06,890 --> 00:01:11,850 intended to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, 14 00:01:11,850 --> 00:01:16,829 and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats. 15 00:01:16,829 --> 00:01:21,429 Responsible ecotourism programs include those that minimize the negative aspects of conventional 16 00:01:21,429 --> 00:01:27,060 tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, 17 00:01:27,060 --> 00:01:32,789 in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism 18 00:01:32,789 --> 00:01:38,969 is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic 19 00:01:38,969 --> 00:01:45,380 opportunities for local communities. For these reasons, ecotourism often appeals to advocates 20 00:01:45,380 --> 00:01:51,759 of environmental and social responsibility. The term 'ecotourism', like 'sustainable tourism', 21 00:01:51,759 --> 00:01:57,920 is considered by many to be an oxymoron. Tourism in general depends upon and increases air 22 00:01:57,920 --> 00:02:02,560 transportation, contributing significantly to greenhouse gas emissions from combustion 23 00:02:02,560 --> 00:02:07,049 placed high into the stratosphere where they immediately contribute to the heat trapping 24 00:02:07,049 --> 00:02:12,990 phenomenon behind global warming and climate change. Additionally, "the overall effect 25 00:02:12,990 --> 00:02:18,810 of sustainable tourism is negative, where, like ecotourism, philanthropic aspirations 26 00:02:18,810 --> 00:02:22,570 mask hard-nosed immediate self-interest." 27 00:02:22,570 --> 00:02:25,350 Criteria Ecotourism is a form of tourism that involves 28 00:02:25,350 --> 00:02:31,810 visiting natural areas—in the remote wilderness or rural environments. According to the definition 29 00:02:31,810 --> 00:02:37,870 and principles of ecotourism established by The International Ecotourism Society in 1990, 30 00:02:37,870 --> 00:02:42,890 ecotourism is "Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves 31 00:02:42,890 --> 00:02:49,000 the well-being of local people.". Martha Honey, expands on the TIES definition by describing 32 00:02:49,000 --> 00:02:52,600 the seven characteristics of ecotourism, which are: 33 00:02:52,600 --> 00:02:56,480 Involves travel to natural destinations Minimizes impact 34 00:02:56,480 --> 00:03:02,280 Builds environmental awareness Provides direct financial benefits for conservation 35 00:03:02,280 --> 00:03:06,040 Provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people 36 00:03:06,040 --> 00:03:10,370 Respects local culture Supports human rights and democratic movements 37 00:03:10,370 --> 00:03:14,360 such as: conservation of biological diversity and cultural 38 00:03:14,360 --> 00:03:20,070 diversity through ecosystem protection promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity, 39 00:03:20,070 --> 00:03:25,780 by providing jobs to local populations sharing of socio-economic benefits with local 40 00:03:25,780 --> 00:03:30,550 communities and indigenous peoples by having their informed consent and participation in 41 00:03:30,550 --> 00:03:36,980 the management of ecotourism enterprises tourism to unspoiled natural resources, with 42 00:03:36,980 --> 00:03:40,610 minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern. 43 00:03:40,610 --> 00:03:43,360 minimization of tourism's own environmental impact 44 00:03:43,360 --> 00:03:47,190 affordability and lack of waste in the form of luxury 45 00:03:47,190 --> 00:03:50,900 local culture, flora and fauna being the main attractions 46 00:03:50,900 --> 00:03:56,040 local people benefit from this form of tourism economically, often more than mass tourism 47 00:03:56,040 --> 00:04:02,160 Ecotourism Society Pakistan explains "Ecotourism is a travel activity that ensures direct financial 48 00:04:02,160 --> 00:04:08,150 support to local people where tourism activities are being generated and enjoyed. It teaches 49 00:04:08,150 --> 00:04:13,900 travellers to respect local cultures of destinations where travellers are visiting. It supports 50 00:04:13,900 --> 00:04:19,858 small stakeholders to ensure that money must not go out from the local economies. It discourage 51 00:04:19,858 --> 00:04:26,400 mass tourism, mass constructions of hotels, tourism resorts and mass activities in fragile 52 00:04:26,400 --> 00:04:32,040 areas". For many countries, ecotourism is not simply a marginal activity to finance 53 00:04:32,040 --> 00:04:38,460 protection of the environment, but is a major industry of the national economy. For example, 54 00:04:38,460 --> 00:04:45,460 in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nepal, Kenya, Madagascar and territories such as Antarctica, ecotourism 55 00:04:46,230 --> 00:04:51,200 represents a significant portion of the gross domestic product and economic activity. 56 00:04:51,200 --> 00:04:57,620 Ecotourism is often misinterpreted as any form of tourism that involves nature. In reality, 57 00:04:57,620 --> 00:05:03,100 the latter activities often consist of placing a hotel in a splendid landscape, to the detriment 58 00:05:03,100 --> 00:05:08,870 of the ecosystem. According to them ecotourism must above all sensitize people to the beauty 59 00:05:08,870 --> 00:05:15,070 and the fragility of nature. They condemn some operators as greenwashing their operations: 60 00:05:15,070 --> 00:05:21,250 using the labels of "green" and "eco-friendly”, while behaving in environmentally irresponsible 61 00:05:21,250 --> 00:05:24,360 ways. Although academics disagree about who can 62 00:05:24,360 --> 00:05:29,150 be classified as an ecotourist and there is little statistical data, some estimate that 63 00:05:29,150 --> 00:05:34,740 more than five million ecotourists—the majority of the ecotourist population—come from the 64 00:05:34,740 --> 00:05:39,540 United States, with many others from Western Europe, Canada and Australia. 65 00:05:39,540 --> 00:05:46,360 Currently, there are various moves to create national and international ecotourism accreditation 66 00:05:46,360 --> 00:05:52,380 programs, although the process is also controversial. National ecotourism certification programs 67 00:05:52,380 --> 00:05:58,860 have been put in place in countries such as Costa Rica, Australia, Kenya, Estonia, and 68 00:05:58,860 --> 00:06:01,610 Sweden. Terminology and history 69 00:06:01,610 --> 00:06:07,410 Ecotourism is a late 20th-century neologism compounded from eco- and tourism. According 70 00:06:07,410 --> 00:06:13,850 to the Oxford English Dictionary, ecotour was first recorded in 1973 and ecotourism, 71 00:06:13,850 --> 00:06:20,850 "probably after ecotour", in 1982. ecotour, n. ... A tour of or visit to an area 72 00:06:20,930 --> 00:06:27,070 of ecological interest, usually with an educational element; a similar tour or visit designed 73 00:06:27,070 --> 00:06:31,449 to have as little detrimental effect on the ecology as possible or undertaken with the 74 00:06:31,449 --> 00:06:38,449 specific aim of helping conservation efforts. ecotourism, n. ... Tourism to areas of ecological 75 00:06:39,380 --> 00:06:45,419 interest, esp. to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife; spec. access to an endangered 76 00:06:45,419 --> 00:06:50,130 environment controlled so as to have the least possible adverse effect. 77 00:06:50,130 --> 00:06:56,169 One source claims the terms were used earlier. Claus-Dieter Hetzer, an academic and adventurer 78 00:06:56,169 --> 00:07:02,760 from Forum International in Berkeley, CA, supposedly coined ecotourism in 1965 and ran 79 00:07:02,760 --> 00:07:05,919 the first ecotours in the Yucatán during the early 1970s. 80 00:07:05,919 --> 00:07:12,919 Egotourism is a recent neologism, based upon the pun between eco- and ego-, which pejoratively 81 00:07:13,330 --> 00:07:18,940 refers to travelers more motivated by an egotistical desire to feel they engage in ethical tourism 82 00:07:18,940 --> 00:07:24,719 than by a genuine desire to support a local ecology or sustainable development. Graham 83 00:07:24,720 --> 00:07:30,740 M. S. Dann, a University of the West Indies sociology professor, published a groundbreaking 84 00:07:30,740 --> 00:07:36,680 1977 study revealing that tourism motivation is primarily based upon the socio-psychological 85 00:07:36,680 --> 00:07:42,990 concepts of anomie and ego-enhancement. Brian Wheeller, a professor of tourism at the University 86 00:07:42,990 --> 00:07:49,990 of Tasmania, has popularized the academic concept of egotourism. His brief 1992 "Eco 87 00:07:50,009 --> 00:07:57,009 or Ego tourism" article was the first published usage of the coinage. Wheeller's 1993 "Sustaining 88 00:07:57,160 --> 00:08:00,900 the Ego" article explained the concept. 89 00:08:00,900 --> 00:08:06,550 Sustainable tourism does provide the answer. Unfortunately it is to the wrong question. 90 00:08:06,550 --> 00:08:11,919 Rather than effectively addressing the complexities of tourism impact, what it is actually achieving 91 00:08:11,919 --> 00:08:16,830 is the considerably easier task of answering the question - 'How best can we cope with 92 00:08:16,830 --> 00:08:23,630 the criticism of tourism impact?' - as opposed to the impact itself. In essence then, the 93 00:08:23,630 --> 00:08:28,949 solution has been conjuring up an intellectually appealing concept with little practical application. 94 00:08:28,949 --> 00:08:34,860 One that satisfies the immediate short-term wishes of some of the main protagonists in 95 00:08:34,860 --> 00:08:39,630 tourism's impact debate, avoids sacrifices and enables behaviour in much the same way 96 00:08:39,630 --> 00:08:46,550 as before - but with the veneer of respectability and from a higher moral platform. For eco-tourism, 97 00:08:46,550 --> 00:08:52,120 read ego-tourism. We are more concerned with maintaining our status, massaging our own 98 00:08:52,120 --> 00:08:57,120 egos and appeasing our guilt than with addressing the actual issues involved. 99 00:08:57,120 --> 00:09:00,940 Subsequent publications have elaborated upon egotourism. 100 00:09:00,940 --> 00:09:07,420 Ecotourism, egotourism, responsible tourism, jungle tourism, and sustainable tourism have 101 00:09:07,420 --> 00:09:13,750 become prevalent alternative tourism concepts since the mid-1980s, and ecotourism has experienced 102 00:09:13,750 --> 00:09:19,730 arguably the fastest growth of all sub-sectors in the tourism industry. The popularity represents 103 00:09:19,730 --> 00:09:26,020 a change in tourist perceptions, increased environmental awareness, and a desire to explore 104 00:09:26,020 --> 00:09:30,790 natural environments. Improving sustainability 105 00:09:30,790 --> 00:09:34,349 Regulation and accreditation Because the regulation of ecotourism may be 106 00:09:34,350 --> 00:09:40,390 poorly implemented or nonexistent, ecologically destructive greenwashed operations like underwater 107 00:09:40,390 --> 00:09:46,060 hotels, helicopter tours, and wildlife theme parks can be categorized as ecotourism along 108 00:09:46,060 --> 00:09:53,060 with canoeing, camping, photography, and wildlife observation. The failure to acknowledge responsible, 109 00:09:53,470 --> 00:09:59,290 low-impact ecotourism puts legitimate ecotourism companies at a competitive disadvantage. 110 00:09:59,290 --> 00:10:04,439 Many environmentalists have argued for a global standard of accreditation, differentiating 111 00:10:04,440 --> 00:10:09,750 ecotourism companies based on their level of environmental commitment. A national or 112 00:10:09,750 --> 00:10:15,149 international regulatory board would enforce accreditation procedures, with representation 113 00:10:15,149 --> 00:10:22,149 from various groups including governments, hotels, tour operators, travel agents, guides, 114 00:10:22,270 --> 00:10:29,050 airlines, local authorities, conservation organizations, and non-governmental organizations. 115 00:10:29,050 --> 00:10:34,100 The decisions of the board would be sanctioned by governments, so that non-compliant companies 116 00:10:34,100 --> 00:10:38,709 would be legally required to disassociate themselves from the use of the ecotourism 117 00:10:38,709 --> 00:10:42,680 brand. Crinion suggests a Green Stars System, based 118 00:10:42,680 --> 00:10:49,680 on criteria including a management plan, benefit for the local community, small group interaction, 119 00:10:49,820 --> 00:10:54,959 education value and staff training. Ecotourists who consider their choices would be confident 120 00:10:54,959 --> 00:10:59,680 of a genuine ecotourism experience when they see the higher star rating. 121 00:10:59,680 --> 00:11:05,830 In addition, environmental impact assessments could be used as a form of accreditation. 122 00:11:05,830 --> 00:11:10,680 Feasibility is evaluated from a scientific basis, and recommendations could be made to 123 00:11:10,680 --> 00:11:16,899 optimally plan infrastructure, set tourist capacity, and manage the ecology. This form 124 00:11:16,899 --> 00:11:21,630 of accreditation is more sensitive to site specific conditions. 125 00:11:21,630 --> 00:11:28,100 Some countries have their own certification programs for ecotourism. Costa Rica, for example, 126 00:11:28,100 --> 00:11:33,490 runs the Certification of Sustainable Tourism program, which is intended to balance the 127 00:11:33,490 --> 00:11:40,020 effect that business has on the local environment. The CST program focuses on a company's interaction 128 00:11:40,020 --> 00:11:45,689 with natural and cultural resources, the improvement of quality of life within local communities, 129 00:11:45,690 --> 00:11:51,570 and the economic contribution to other programs of national development. CST uses a rating 130 00:11:51,570 --> 00:11:58,570 system that categorizes a company based upon how sustainable its operations are. CST evaluates 131 00:11:58,810 --> 00:12:04,180 the interaction between the company and the surrounding habitat; the management policies 132 00:12:04,180 --> 00:12:09,279 and operation systems within the company; how the company encourages its clients to 133 00:12:09,279 --> 00:12:14,779 become an active contributor towards sustainable policies; and the interaction between the 134 00:12:14,779 --> 00:12:21,279 company and local communities/the overall population. Based upon these criteria, the 135 00:12:21,279 --> 00:12:26,240 company is evaluated for the strength of its sustainability. The measurement index goes 136 00:12:26,240 --> 00:12:31,839 from 0 to 5, with 0 being the worst and 5 being the best. 137 00:12:31,839 --> 00:12:35,399 Guidelines and education An environmental protection strategy must 138 00:12:35,399 --> 00:12:40,500 address the issue of ecotourists removed from the cause-and-effect of their actions on the 139 00:12:40,500 --> 00:12:45,640 environment. More initiatives should be carried out to improve their awareness, sensitize 140 00:12:45,640 --> 00:12:50,010 them to environmental issues, and care about the places they visit. 141 00:12:50,010 --> 00:12:55,689 Tour guides are an obvious and direct medium to communicate awareness. With the confidence 142 00:12:55,690 --> 00:13:01,100 of ecotourists and intimate knowledge of the environment, they can actively discuss conservation 143 00:13:01,100 --> 00:13:07,010 issues. A tour guide training program in Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park has helped 144 00:13:07,010 --> 00:13:11,720 mitigate negative environmental impacts by providing information and regulating tourists 145 00:13:11,720 --> 00:13:16,330 on the parks' beaches used by nesting endangered sea turtles. 146 00:13:16,330 --> 00:13:21,880 Small scale, slow growth and local control The underdevelopment theory of tourism describes 147 00:13:21,880 --> 00:13:28,350 a new form of imperialism by multinational corporations that control ecotourism resources. 148 00:13:28,350 --> 00:13:32,630 These corporations finance and profit from the development of large scale ecotourism 149 00:13:32,630 --> 00:13:38,240 that causes excessive environmental degradation, loss of traditional culture and way of life, 150 00:13:38,240 --> 00:13:44,860 and exploitation of local labor. In Zimbabwe and Nepal's Annapurna region, where underdevelopment 151 00:13:44,860 --> 00:13:51,260 is taking place, more than 90 percent of ecotourism revenues are expatriated to the parent countries, 152 00:13:51,260 --> 00:13:56,829 and less than 5 percent go into local communities. The lack of sustainability highlights the 153 00:13:56,829 --> 00:14:03,579 need for small scale, slow growth, and locally based ecotourism. Local peoples have a vested 154 00:14:03,579 --> 00:14:08,339 interest in the well being of their community, and are therefore more accountable to environmental 155 00:14:08,339 --> 00:14:14,500 protection than multinational corporations. The lack of control, westernization, adverse 156 00:14:14,500 --> 00:14:19,779 impacts to the environment, loss of culture and traditions outweigh the benefits of establishing 157 00:14:19,779 --> 00:14:24,189 large scale ecotourism. The increased contributions of communities 158 00:14:24,190 --> 00:14:29,829 to locally managed ecotourism create viable economic opportunities, including high level 159 00:14:29,829 --> 00:14:36,620 management positions, and reduce environmental issues associated with poverty and unemployment. 160 00:14:36,620 --> 00:14:40,930 Because the ecotourism experience is marketed to a different lifestyle from large scale 161 00:14:40,930 --> 00:14:45,680 ecotourism, the development of facilities and infrastructure does not need to conform 162 00:14:45,680 --> 00:14:51,880 to corporate Western tourism standards, and can be much simpler and less expensive. There 163 00:14:51,880 --> 00:14:58,100 is a greater multiplier effect on the economy, because local products, materials, and labor 164 00:14:58,100 --> 00:15:04,240 are used. Profits accrue locally and import leakages are reduced. The Great Barrier Reef 165 00:15:04,240 --> 00:15:08,670 Park in Australia reported over half of a billion dollars of indirect income in the 166 00:15:08,670 --> 00:15:15,670 area and added thousands of indirect jobs between 2004 and 2005. However, even this 167 00:15:15,880 --> 00:15:22,019 form of tourism may require foreign investment for promotion or start up. When such investments 168 00:15:22,019 --> 00:15:27,779 are required, it is crucial for communities for find a company or non-governmental organization 169 00:15:27,779 --> 00:15:32,820 that reflects the philosophy of ecotourism; sensitive to their concerns and willing to 170 00:15:32,820 --> 00:15:38,310 cooperate at the expense of profit. The basic assumption of the multiplier effect is that 171 00:15:38,310 --> 00:15:44,120 the economy starts off with unused resources, for example, that many workers are cyclically 172 00:15:44,120 --> 00:15:49,589 unemployed and much of industrial capacity is sitting idle or incompletely utilized. 173 00:15:49,589 --> 00:15:54,410 By increasing demand in the economy it is then possible to boost production. If the 174 00:15:54,410 --> 00:16:00,360 economy was already at full employment, with only structural, frictional, or other supply-side 175 00:16:00,360 --> 00:16:06,470 types of unemployment, any attempt to boost demand would only lead to inflation. For various 176 00:16:06,470 --> 00:16:11,490 laissez-faire schools of economics which embrace Say's Law and deny the possibility of Keynesian 177 00:16:11,490 --> 00:16:17,200 inefficiency and under-employment of resources, therefore, the multiplier concept is irrelevant 178 00:16:17,200 --> 00:16:21,639 or wrong-headed. As an example, consider the government increasing 179 00:16:21,639 --> 00:16:28,130 its expenditure on roads by $1 million, without a corresponding increase in taxation. This 180 00:16:28,130 --> 00:16:32,720 sum would go to the road builders, who would hire more workers and distribute the money 181 00:16:32,720 --> 00:16:38,200 as wages and profits. The households receiving these incomes will save part of the money 182 00:16:38,200 --> 00:16:44,490 and spend the rest on consumer goods. These expenditures in turn will generate more jobs, 183 00:16:44,490 --> 00:16:50,579 wages, and profits, and so on with the income and spending circulating around the economy. 184 00:16:50,579 --> 00:16:55,160 The multiplier effect arises because of the induced increases in consumer spending which 185 00:16:55,160 --> 00:17:00,689 occur due to the increased incomes — and because of the feedback into increasing business 186 00:17:00,690 --> 00:17:06,850 revenues, jobs, and income again. This process does not lead to an economic explosion not 187 00:17:06,849 --> 00:17:11,770 only because of the supply-side barriers at potential output but because at each "round", 188 00:17:11,770 --> 00:17:17,119 the increase in consumer spending is less than the increase in consumer incomes. That 189 00:17:17,120 --> 00:17:22,230 is, the marginal propensity to consume is less than one, so that each round some extra 190 00:17:22,230 --> 00:17:28,250 income goes into saving, leaking out of the cumulative process. Each increase in spending 191 00:17:28,250 --> 00:17:32,650 is thus smaller than that of the previous round, preventing an explosion. 192 00:17:32,650 --> 00:17:38,460 Efforts to preserve ecosystems at risk Some of the world's most exceptional biodiversity 193 00:17:38,460 --> 00:17:44,570 is located in the Galapagos Islands. These islands were designated a UNESCO World Heritage 194 00:17:44,570 --> 00:17:51,570 site in 1979, then added to UNESCO’s List of World Heritage in Danger in 2007. IGTOA 195 00:17:54,490 --> 00:17:59,500 is a non-profit dedicated to preserving this unique living laboratory against the challenges 196 00:17:59,500 --> 00:18:06,500 of invasive species, human impact, and tourism. For travelers who want to be mindful of the 197 00:18:06,520 --> 00:18:10,900 environment and the impact of tourism, it is recommended to utilize an operator that 198 00:18:10,900 --> 00:18:17,770 is endorsed by a reputable ecotourism organization. In the case of the Galapagos, IGTOA has a 199 00:18:17,770 --> 00:18:24,770 list of the world’s premiere Galapagos Islands tour companies dedicated to the lasting protection 200 00:18:25,150 --> 00:18:31,000 and preservation of the destination. A few of these include Adventure Life, EcoVentura, 201 00:18:31,000 --> 00:18:35,620 and SilverSea. Natural resource management 202 00:18:35,620 --> 00:18:39,720 Natural resource management can be utilized as a specialized tool for the development 203 00:18:39,720 --> 00:18:45,110 of ecotourism. There are several places throughout the world where the amount of natural resources 204 00:18:45,110 --> 00:18:52,110 are abundant. But, with human encroachment and habitats these resources are depleting. 205 00:18:52,130 --> 00:18:56,440 Without knowing the proper utilization of certain resources they are destroyed and floral 206 00:18:56,440 --> 00:19:02,720 and faunal species are becoming extinct. Ecotourism programmes can be introduced for the conservation 207 00:19:02,720 --> 00:19:08,179 of these resources. Several plans and proper management programmes can be introduced so 208 00:19:08,179 --> 00:19:14,870 that these resources remain untouched. Several organizations, NGO's, scientists are working 209 00:19:14,870 --> 00:19:19,000 on this field. Natural resources of hill areas like Kurseong 210 00:19:19,000 --> 00:19:24,320 in West Bengal are plenty in number with various flora and fauna, but tourism for business 211 00:19:24,320 --> 00:19:29,918 purpose poised the situation. Researcher from Jadavpur University presently are working 212 00:19:29,919 --> 00:19:34,490 in this area for the development of ecotourism which can be utilized as a tool for natural 213 00:19:34,490 --> 00:19:39,299 resource management. In Southeast Asia government and nongovernmental 214 00:19:39,299 --> 00:19:44,549 organisations are working together with academics and industry operators to spread the economic 215 00:19:44,549 --> 00:19:49,440 benefits of tourism into the kampungs and villages of the region. A recently formed 216 00:19:49,440 --> 00:19:55,230 alliance, the South-East Asian Tourism Organisation, is bringing together these diverse players 217 00:19:55,230 --> 00:20:01,919 to allay resource management concerns. A 2002 summit held in Quebec led to the 2008 218 00:20:01,919 --> 00:20:07,039 Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria, a collaborative effort between the UN Foundation and other 219 00:20:07,039 --> 00:20:14,039 advocacy groups. The criteria, which are voluntary, involve the following standards: "effective 220 00:20:14,919 --> 00:20:20,250 sustainability planning, maximum social and economic benefits for local communities, minimum 221 00:20:20,250 --> 00:20:26,830 negative impacts on cultural heritage, and minimum negative impacts on the environment." 222 00:20:26,830 --> 00:20:28,320 Criticism Definition 223 00:20:28,320 --> 00:20:33,240 In the continuum of tourism activities that stretch from conventional tourism to ecotourism 224 00:20:33,240 --> 00:20:38,390 proper, there has been a lot of contention to the limit at which biodiversity preservation, 225 00:20:38,390 --> 00:20:45,220 local social-economic benefits, and environmental impact can be considered "ecotourism". For 226 00:20:45,220 --> 00:20:50,750 this reason, environmentalists, special interest groups, and governments define ecotourism 227 00:20:50,750 --> 00:20:57,710 differently. Environmental organizations have generally insisted that ecotourism is nature-based, 228 00:20:57,710 --> 00:21:03,669 sustainably managed, conservation supporting, and environmentally educated. The tourist 229 00:21:03,669 --> 00:21:09,150 industry and governments, however, focus more on the product aspect, treating ecotourism 230 00:21:09,150 --> 00:21:15,100 as equivalent to any sort of tourism based in nature. As a further complication, many 231 00:21:15,100 --> 00:21:21,910 terms are used under the rubric of ecotourism. Nature tourism, low impact tourism, green 232 00:21:21,910 --> 00:21:27,370 tourism, bio-tourism, ecologically responsible tourism, and others have been used in literature 233 00:21:27,370 --> 00:21:32,250 and marketing, although they are not necessary synonymous with ecotourism. 234 00:21:32,250 --> 00:21:37,240 The problems associated with defining ecotourism have often led to confusion among tourists 235 00:21:37,240 --> 00:21:42,880 and academics . Definitional problems are also subject of considerable public controversy 236 00:21:42,880 --> 00:21:48,130 and concern because of green washing, a trend towards the commercialization of tourism schemes 237 00:21:48,130 --> 00:21:54,520 disguised as sustainable, nature based, and environmentally friendly ecotourism. According 238 00:21:54,520 --> 00:22:00,700 to McLaren, these schemes are environmentally destructive, economically exploitative, and 239 00:22:00,700 --> 00:22:05,309 culturally insensitive at its worst. They are also morally disconcerting because they 240 00:22:05,309 --> 00:22:11,110 mislead tourists and manipulate their concerns for the environment. The development and success 241 00:22:11,110 --> 00:22:17,130 of such large scale, energy intensive, and ecologically unsustainable schemes are a testament 242 00:22:17,130 --> 00:22:22,030 to the tremendous profits associated with being labeled as ecotourism. 243 00:22:22,030 --> 00:22:25,299 Negative impact Ecotourism has become one of the fastest-growing 244 00:22:25,299 --> 00:22:32,299 sectors of the tourism industry, growing annually by 10–15% worldwide. One definition of ecotourism 245 00:22:33,320 --> 00:22:38,639 is "the practice of low-impact, educational, ecologically and culturally sensitive travel 246 00:22:38,640 --> 00:22:44,590 that benefits local communities and host countries". Many of the ecotourism projects are not meeting 247 00:22:44,590 --> 00:22:50,090 these standards. Even if some of the guidelines are being executed, the local communities 248 00:22:50,090 --> 00:22:55,389 are still facing other negative impacts. South Africa is one of the countries that are reaping 249 00:22:55,390 --> 00:23:01,610 significant economic benefits from ecotourism, but negative effects—including forcing people 250 00:23:01,610 --> 00:23:07,400 to leave their homes, gross violations of fundamental rights, and environmental hazards—far 251 00:23:07,400 --> 00:23:13,280 outweigh the medium-term economic benefits. A tremendous amount of money is being spent 252 00:23:13,280 --> 00:23:18,720 and human resources continue to be used for ecotourism despite unsuccessful outcomes, 253 00:23:18,720 --> 00:23:24,740 and even more money is put into public relation campaigns to dilute the effects of criticism. 254 00:23:24,740 --> 00:23:29,440 Ecotourism channels resources away from other projects that could contribute more sustainable 255 00:23:29,440 --> 00:23:35,169 and realistic solutions to pressing social and environmental problems. "The money tourism 256 00:23:35,169 --> 00:23:40,740 can generate often ties parks and managements to eco-tourism". But there is a tension in 257 00:23:40,740 --> 00:23:46,520 this relationship because ecotourism often causes conflict and changes in land-use rights, 258 00:23:46,520 --> 00:23:51,918 fails to deliver promises of community-level benefits, damages environments, and has plenty 259 00:23:51,919 --> 00:23:57,990 of other social impacts. Indeed many argue repeatedly that ecotourism is neither ecologically 260 00:23:57,990 --> 00:24:04,169 nor socially beneficial, yet it persists as a strategy for conservation and development. 261 00:24:04,169 --> 00:24:08,690 While several studies are being done on ways to improve the ecotourism structure, some 262 00:24:08,690 --> 00:24:13,270 argue that these examples provide rationale for stopping it altogether. 263 00:24:13,270 --> 00:24:19,020 The ecotourism system exercises tremendous financial and political influence. The evidence 264 00:24:19,020 --> 00:24:25,590 above shows that a strong case exists for restraining such activities in certain locations. 265 00:24:25,590 --> 00:24:30,209 Funding could be used for field studies aimed at finding alternative solutions to tourism 266 00:24:30,210 --> 00:24:36,159 and the diverse problems Africa faces in result of urbanization, industrialization, and the 267 00:24:36,159 --> 00:24:42,460 over exploitation of agriculture. At the local level, ecotourism has become a source of conflict 268 00:24:42,460 --> 00:24:49,270 over control of land, resources, and tourism profits. In this case, ecotourism has harmed 269 00:24:49,270 --> 00:24:53,960 the environment and local people, and has led to conflicts over profit distribution. 270 00:24:53,960 --> 00:24:59,570 In a perfect world more efforts would be made towards educating tourists of the environmental 271 00:24:59,570 --> 00:25:04,950 and social effects of their travels. Very few regulations or laws stand in place as 272 00:25:04,950 --> 00:25:10,059 boundaries for the investors in ecotourism. These should be implemented to prohibit the 273 00:25:10,059 --> 00:25:15,408 promotion of unsustainable ecotourism projects and materials which project false images of 274 00:25:15,409 --> 00:25:19,169 destinations, demeaning local and indigenous cultures. 275 00:25:19,169 --> 00:25:24,830 Though conservation efforts in East Africa are indisputably serving the interests of 276 00:25:24,830 --> 00:25:29,020 tourism in the region it is important to make the distinction between conservation acts 277 00:25:29,020 --> 00:25:34,010 and the tourism industry. Eastern African communities are not the only of developing 278 00:25:34,010 --> 00:25:40,169 regions to experience economic and social harms from conservation efforts. Conservation 279 00:25:40,169 --> 00:25:44,970 in the Northwest Yunnan Region of China has similarly brought drastic changes to traditional 280 00:25:44,970 --> 00:25:50,860 land use in the region. Prior to logging restrictions imposed by the Chinese Government the industry 281 00:25:50,860 --> 00:25:56,330 made up 80 percent of the regions revenue. Following a complete ban on commercial logging 282 00:25:56,330 --> 00:26:02,158 the indigenous people of the Yunnan region now see little opportunity for economic development. 283 00:26:02,159 --> 00:26:06,860 Ecotourism may provide solutions to the economic hardships suffered from the loss of industry 284 00:26:06,860 --> 00:26:11,150 to conservation in the Yunnan in the same way that it may serve to remedy the difficulties 285 00:26:11,150 --> 00:26:17,280 faced by the Maasai. As stated, the ecotourism structure must be improved to direct more 286 00:26:17,280 --> 00:26:22,658 money into host communities by reducing leakages for the industry to be successful in alleviating 287 00:26:22,659 --> 00:26:28,020 poverty in developing regions, but it provides a promising opportunity. 288 00:26:28,020 --> 00:26:32,408 Direct environmental impacts Ecotourism operations occasionally fail to 289 00:26:32,409 --> 00:26:39,360 live up to conservation ideals. It is sometimes overlooked that ecotourism is a highly consumer-centered 290 00:26:39,360 --> 00:26:44,710 activity, and that environmental conservation is a means to further economic growth. 291 00:26:44,710 --> 00:26:50,049 Although ecotourism is intended for small groups, even a modest increase in population, 292 00:26:50,049 --> 00:26:54,820 however temporary, puts extra pressure on the local environment and necessitates the 293 00:26:54,820 --> 00:27:00,840 development of additional infrastructure and amenities. The construction of water treatment 294 00:27:00,840 --> 00:27:05,770 plants, sanitation facilities, and lodges come with the exploitation of non-renewable 295 00:27:05,770 --> 00:27:11,710 energy sources and the utilization of already limited local resources. The conversion of 296 00:27:11,710 --> 00:27:16,750 natural land to such tourist infrastructure is implicated in deforestation and habitat 297 00:27:16,750 --> 00:27:23,400 deterioration of butterflies in Mexico and squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica. In other cases, 298 00:27:23,400 --> 00:27:28,080 the environment suffers because local communities are unable to meet the infrastructure demands 299 00:27:28,080 --> 00:27:33,960 of ecotourism. The lack of adequate sanitation facilities in many East African parks results 300 00:27:33,960 --> 00:27:40,059 in the disposal of campsite sewage in rivers, contaminating the wildlife, livestock, and 301 00:27:40,059 --> 00:27:44,830 people who draw drinking water from it. Aside from environmental degradation with 302 00:27:44,830 --> 00:27:49,830 tourist infrastructure, population pressures from ecotourism also leaves behind garbage 303 00:27:49,830 --> 00:27:55,129 and pollution associated with the Western lifestyle. Although ecotourists claim to be 304 00:27:55,130 --> 00:28:00,529 educationally sophisticated and environmentally concerned, they rarely understand the ecological 305 00:28:00,529 --> 00:28:04,929 consequences of their visits and how their day-to-day activities append physical impacts 306 00:28:04,929 --> 00:28:10,929 on the environment. As one scientist observes, they "rarely acknowledge how the meals they 307 00:28:10,929 --> 00:28:16,450 eat, the toilets they flush, the water they drink, and so on, are all part of broader 308 00:28:16,450 --> 00:28:21,710 regional economic and ecological systems they are helping to reconfigure with their very 309 00:28:21,710 --> 00:28:26,610 activities." Nor do ecotourists recognize the great consumption of non-renewable energy 310 00:28:26,610 --> 00:28:31,390 required to arrive at their destination, which is typically more remote than conventional 311 00:28:31,390 --> 00:28:37,669 tourism destinations. For instance, an exotic journey to a place 10,000 kilometers away 312 00:28:37,669 --> 00:28:44,669 consumes about 700 liters of fuel per person. Ecotourism activities are, in and of themselves, 313 00:28:45,320 --> 00:28:50,740 issues in environmental impact because they may disturb fauna and flora. Ecotourists believe 314 00:28:50,740 --> 00:28:55,720 that because they are only taking pictures and leaving footprints, they keep ecotourism 315 00:28:55,720 --> 00:29:01,000 sites pristine, but even harmless-sounding activities such as nature hikes can be ecologically 316 00:29:01,000 --> 00:29:07,330 destructive. In the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal, ecotourists have worn down the marked trails 317 00:29:07,330 --> 00:29:13,529 and created alternate routes, contributing to soil impaction, erosion, and plant damage. 318 00:29:13,529 --> 00:29:19,909 Where the ecotourism activity involves wildlife viewing, it can scare away animals, disrupt 319 00:29:19,909 --> 00:29:25,870 their feeding and nesting sites, or acclimate them to the presence of people. In Kenya, 320 00:29:25,870 --> 00:29:30,450 wildlife-observer disruption drives cheetahs off their reserves, increasing the risk of 321 00:29:30,450 --> 00:29:35,419 inbreeding and further endangering the species. Environmental hazards 322 00:29:35,419 --> 00:29:41,870 The industrialization, urbanization, and unsustainable agriculture practices of human society are 323 00:29:41,870 --> 00:29:47,590 considered to be having a serious effect on the environment. Ecotourism is now also considered 324 00:29:47,590 --> 00:29:53,690 to be playing a role in this depletion. While the term ecotourism may sound relatively benign, 325 00:29:53,690 --> 00:29:59,630 one of its most serious impacts is its consumption of virgin territories. These invasions often 326 00:29:59,630 --> 00:30:05,870 include deforestation, disruption of ecological life systems and various forms of pollution, 327 00:30:05,870 --> 00:30:11,330 all of which contribute to environmental degradation. The number of motor vehicles crossing the 328 00:30:11,330 --> 00:30:16,939 park increases as tour drivers search for rare species. The number of roads has disrupted 329 00:30:16,940 --> 00:30:22,850 the grass cover which has serious effects on plant and animal species. These areas also 330 00:30:22,850 --> 00:30:27,100 have a higher rate of disturbances and invasive species because of all the traffic moving 331 00:30:27,100 --> 00:30:33,049 off the beaten path into new undiscovered areas. Ecotourism also has an effect on species 332 00:30:33,049 --> 00:30:37,600 through the value placed on them. "Certain species have gone from being little known 333 00:30:37,600 --> 00:30:43,190 or valued by local people to being highly valued commodities. The commodification of 334 00:30:43,190 --> 00:30:49,140 plants may erase their social value and lead to overproduction within protected areas. 335 00:30:49,140 --> 00:30:54,070 Local people and their images can also be turned into commodities". Kamuaro brings up 336 00:30:54,070 --> 00:30:59,830 a relatively obvious contradiction, any commercial venture into unspoiled, pristine land with 337 00:30:59,830 --> 00:31:05,379 or without the "eco" prefix as a contradiction in terms. To generate revenue you have to 338 00:31:05,380 --> 00:31:11,010 have a high number of traffic, tourists, which inevitably means a higher pressure on the 339 00:31:11,010 --> 00:31:13,320 environment. Local people 340 00:31:13,320 --> 00:31:17,740 Most forms of ecotourism are owned by foreign investors and corporations that provide few 341 00:31:17,740 --> 00:31:23,510 benefits to local communities. An overwhelming majority of profits are put into the pockets 342 00:31:23,510 --> 00:31:29,500 of investors instead of reinvestment into the local economy or environmental protection. 343 00:31:29,500 --> 00:31:34,399 The limited numbers of local people who are employed in the economy enter at its lowest 344 00:31:34,399 --> 00:31:40,429 level, and are unable to live in tourist areas because of meager wages and a two market system. 345 00:31:40,429 --> 00:31:46,559 In some cases, the resentment by local people results in environmental degradation. As a 346 00:31:46,559 --> 00:31:51,840 highly publicized case, the Maasai nomads in Kenya killed wildlife in national parks 347 00:31:51,840 --> 00:31:57,309 but are now helping the national park to save the wildlife to show aversion to unfair compensation 348 00:31:57,309 --> 00:32:03,600 terms and displacement from traditional lands. The lack of economic opportunities for local 349 00:32:03,600 --> 00:32:08,820 people also constrains them to degrade the environment as a means of sustenance. The 350 00:32:08,820 --> 00:32:13,129 presence of affluent ecotourists encourage the development of destructive markets in 351 00:32:13,130 --> 00:32:18,840 wildlife souvenirs, such as the sale of coral trinkets on tropical islands and animal products 352 00:32:18,840 --> 00:32:25,039 in Asia, contributing to illegal harvesting and poaching from the environment. In Suriname, 353 00:32:25,039 --> 00:32:30,500 sea turtle reserves use a very large portion of their budget to guard against these destructive 354 00:32:30,500 --> 00:32:33,149 activities. Displacement of people 355 00:32:33,149 --> 00:32:37,600 One of the most powerful examples of communities being moved in order to create a park is the 356 00:32:37,600 --> 00:32:43,809 story of the Maasai. About 70% of national parks and game reserves in East Africa are 357 00:32:43,809 --> 00:32:49,730 on Maasai land. The first undesirable impact of tourism was that of the extent of land 358 00:32:49,730 --> 00:32:56,169 lost from the Maasai culture. Local and national governments took advantage of the Maasai’s 359 00:32:56,169 --> 00:33:01,960 ignorance on the situation and robbed them of huge chunks of grazing land, putting to 360 00:33:01,960 --> 00:33:07,640 risk their only socio-economic livelihood. In Kenya the Maasai also have not gained any 361 00:33:07,640 --> 00:33:14,640 economic benefits. Despite the loss of their land, employment favours better educated workers. 362 00:33:15,380 --> 00:33:19,820 Furthermore the investors in this area are not local and have not put profits back into 363 00:33:19,820 --> 00:33:25,720 local economy. In some cases game reserves can be created without informing or consulting 364 00:33:25,720 --> 00:33:32,110 local people, who come to find out about the situation when an eviction notice is delivered. 365 00:33:32,110 --> 00:33:37,809 Another source of resentment is the manipulation of the local people by their government. "Eco-tourism 366 00:33:37,809 --> 00:33:42,639 works to create simplistic images of local people and their uses and understandings of 367 00:33:42,640 --> 00:33:48,179 their surroundings. Through the lens of these simplified images, officials direct policies 368 00:33:48,179 --> 00:33:52,610 and projects towards the local people and the local people are blamed if the projects 369 00:33:52,610 --> 00:33:59,610 fail". Clearly tourism as a trade is not empowering the local people who make it rich and satisfying. 370 00:34:00,039 --> 00:34:05,770 Instead ecotourism exploits and depletes, particularly in African Maasai tribes. It 371 00:34:05,770 --> 00:34:11,418 has to be reoriented if it is to be useful to local communities and to become sustainable. 372 00:34:11,418 --> 00:34:15,819 Threats to indigenous cultures Ecotourism often claims that it preserves 373 00:34:15,819 --> 00:34:21,748 and "enhances" local cultures. However, evidence shows that with the establishment of protected 374 00:34:21,749 --> 00:34:28,349 areas local people have illegally lost their homes, and most often with no compensation. 375 00:34:28,349 --> 00:34:34,690 Pushing people onto marginal lands with harsh climates, poor soils, lack of water, and infested 376 00:34:34,690 --> 00:34:39,168 with livestock and disease does little to enhance livelihoods even when a proportion 377 00:34:39,168 --> 00:34:44,569 of ecotourism profits are directed back into the community. The establishment of parks 378 00:34:44,569 --> 00:34:49,409 can create harsh survival realities and deprive the people of their traditional use of land 379 00:34:49,409 --> 00:34:55,139 and natural resources. Ethnic groups are increasingly being seen as a "backdrop" to the scenery 380 00:34:55,139 --> 00:35:00,559 and wildlife. The local people struggle for cultural survival and freedom of cultural 381 00:35:00,559 --> 00:35:06,729 expression while being "observed" by tourists. Local indigenous people also have strong resentment 382 00:35:06,729 --> 00:35:12,339 towards the change, "Tourism has been allowed to develop with virtually no controls. Too 383 00:35:12,339 --> 00:35:17,078 many lodges have been built, too much firewood is being used and no limits are being placed 384 00:35:17,079 --> 00:35:23,690 on tourism vehicles. They regularly drive off-track and harass the wildlife. Their vehicle 385 00:35:23,690 --> 00:35:30,619 tracks cris-cross the entire Masai Mara. Inevitably the bush is becoming eroded and degraded". 386 00:35:30,619 --> 00:35:33,670 Mismanagement While governments are typically entrusted 387 00:35:33,670 --> 00:35:38,130 with the administration and enforcement of environmental protection, they often lack 388 00:35:38,130 --> 00:35:44,749 the commitment or capability to manage ecotourism sites effectively. The regulations for environmental 389 00:35:44,749 --> 00:35:50,819 protection may be vaguely defined, costly to implement, hard to enforce, and uncertain 390 00:35:50,819 --> 00:35:57,630 in effectiveness. Government regulatory agencies, as political bodies, are susceptible to making 391 00:35:57,630 --> 00:36:02,849 decisions that spend budget on politically beneficial but environmentally unproductive 392 00:36:02,849 --> 00:36:08,359 projects. Because of prestige and conspicuousness, the construction of an attractive visitor's 393 00:36:08,359 --> 00:36:13,690 center at an ecotourism site may take precedence over more pressing environmental concerns 394 00:36:13,690 --> 00:36:20,690 like acquiring habitat, protecting endemic species, and removing invasive ones. Finally, 395 00:36:21,160 --> 00:36:25,808 influential groups can pressure and sway the interests of the government to their favor. 396 00:36:25,809 --> 00:36:30,359 The government and its regulators can become vested in the benefits of the ecotourism industry 397 00:36:30,359 --> 00:36:34,999 which they are supposed to regulate, causing restrictive environmental regulations and 398 00:36:34,999 --> 00:36:40,069 enforcement to become more lenient. Management of ecotourism sites by private 399 00:36:40,069 --> 00:36:44,709 ecotourism companies offers an alternative to the cost of regulation and deficiency of 400 00:36:44,709 --> 00:36:49,979 government agencies. It is believed that these companies have a self-interest in limited 401 00:36:49,979 --> 00:36:55,319 environmental degradation, because tourists will pay more for pristine environments, which 402 00:36:55,319 --> 00:37:01,420 translates to higher profit. However, theory indicates that this practice is not economically 403 00:37:01,420 --> 00:37:07,339 feasible and will fail to manage the environment. The model of monopolistic competition states 404 00:37:07,339 --> 00:37:13,219 that distinctiveness will entail profits, but profits will promote imitation. A company 405 00:37:13,219 --> 00:37:18,009 that protects its ecotourism sites is able to charge a premium for the novel experience 406 00:37:18,009 --> 00:37:23,640 and pristine environment. But when other companies view the success of this approach, they also 407 00:37:23,640 --> 00:37:30,368 enter the market with similar practices, increasing competition and reducing demand. Eventually, 408 00:37:30,369 --> 00:37:36,119 the demand will be reduced until the economic profit is zero. A cost-benefit analysis shows 409 00:37:36,119 --> 00:37:41,690 that the company bears the cost of environmental protection without receiving the gains. Without 410 00:37:41,690 --> 00:37:48,239 economic incentive, the whole premise of self-interest through environmental protection is quashed; 411 00:37:48,239 --> 00:37:53,349 instead, ecotourism companies will minimize environment related expenses and maximize 412 00:37:53,349 --> 00:37:57,209 tourism demand. The tragedy of the commons offers another 413 00:37:57,209 --> 00:38:03,598 model for economic unsustainability from environmental protection, in ecotourism sites utilized by 414 00:38:03,599 --> 00:38:09,400 many companies. Although there is a communal incentive to protect the environment, maximizing 415 00:38:09,400 --> 00:38:13,880 the benefits in the long run, a company will conclude that it is in their best interest 416 00:38:13,880 --> 00:38:19,209 to utilize the ecotourism site beyond its sustainable level. By increasing the number 417 00:38:19,209 --> 00:38:24,598 of ecotourists, for instance, a company gains all the economic benefit while paying only 418 00:38:24,599 --> 00:38:30,259 a part of the environmental cost. In the same way, a company recognizes that there is no 419 00:38:30,259 --> 00:38:36,069 incentive to actively protect the environment; they bear all the costs, while the benefits 420 00:38:36,069 --> 00:38:42,288 are shared by all other companies. The result, again, is mismanagement. 421 00:38:42,289 --> 00:38:47,640 Taken together, the mobility of foreign investment and lack of economic incentive for environmental 422 00:38:47,640 --> 00:38:52,129 protection means that ecotourism companies are disposed to establishing themselves in 423 00:38:52,130 --> 00:38:56,469 new sites once their existing one is sufficiently degraded. 424 00:38:56,469 --> 00:38:59,880 Case Studies The purpose of ecotourism is to engage tourists 425 00:38:59,880 --> 00:39:04,829 in low impact, non-consumptive and locally oriented environments in order to maintain 426 00:39:04,829 --> 00:39:11,829 species and habitats - especially in underdeveloped regions. While some ecotourism projects, including 427 00:39:12,180 --> 00:39:17,680 some found in the United States, can support such claims, many projects have failed to 428 00:39:17,680 --> 00:39:23,410 address some of the fundamental issues that nations face in the first place. Consequently, 429 00:39:23,410 --> 00:39:27,910 ecotourism may not generate the very benefits it is intended to provide to these regions 430 00:39:27,910 --> 00:39:33,700 and their people, and in some cases leaving economies in a state worse than before. 431 00:39:33,700 --> 00:39:38,869 The following case studies illustrate the rising complexity of ecotourism and its impacts, 432 00:39:38,869 --> 00:39:44,799 both positive and negative, on the environment and economies of various regions in the world. 433 00:39:44,799 --> 00:39:48,589 Ecotourism in Costa Rica Ecotourism in South Africa 434 00:39:48,589 --> 00:39:52,130 Ecotourism in the United States Ecotourism in Jordan 435 00:39:52,130 --> 00:39:54,079 See also 436 00:39:54,079 --> 00:39:54,690 References 437 00:39:54,690 --> 00:40:01,690 Further reading Burger, J. 2000. Landscapes, tourism, and 438 00:40:02,069 --> 00:40:09,069 conservation. Science of the Total Environment. 249: 39–49. 439 00:40:11,449 --> 00:40:17,249 Ceballos-Lascurain, H. 1996. Tourism, Ecotourism, and Protected Areas. 440 00:40:17,249 --> 00:40:24,249 Clarkin, T. and K. N. Kähler. 2011. "Ecotourism." Encyclopedia of Environmental Issues. Rev. 441 00:40:28,650 --> 00:40:35,650 ed. Pasadena: Salem Press. Vol. 2, pp. 421–424. ISBN 978-1-58765-737-5 442 00:40:44,759 --> 00:40:51,759 IUCN. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature. 301 pp. 443 00:40:52,900 --> 00:40:59,900 Ceballos-Lascurain, H. 1998. Ecoturismo. Naturaleza y Desarrollo Sostenible. 444 00:41:01,049 --> 00:41:08,049 Editorial Diana. 185 pp. Duffy, R. 2000. Shadow players: ecotourism 445 00:41:10,150 --> 00:41:17,150 development, corruption and state politics in Belize. Third world quarterly, 21(3): 549–565. 446 00:41:20,079 --> 00:41:27,079 Gutzwiller, K. J. y S. H. Anderson, 1999. Spatial extent of human-intrusion effects 447 00:41:28,519 --> 00:41:35,420 on subalpine bird distributions. Condor 101: 378–389. 448 00:41:35,420 --> 00:41:42,420 Nowaczek, A. "Ecotourism: Principles and Practices" Annals of Tourism Research 37.1:270–271. 449 00:41:45,839 --> 00:41:52,839 Orams, M. B. 2000, Tourist getting close to whales, is it what whale watching is all about? 450 00:41:57,269 --> 00:42:04,269 Tourist Management, 21(6): 562–569. Reguero Oxinalde, M. del. 1995. Ecoturismo. 451 00:42:08,130 --> 00:42:15,130 Nuevas formas de turismo en el espacio rural. Ed. Bosch Turismo 452 00:42:15,729 --> 00:42:22,729 Scheyvens, R., 1999, Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. Tourism management, 453 00:42:24,259 --> 00:42:31,259 20: 245–249. Weaver, D. B. 1998. Ecotourism in the less 454 00:42:31,910 --> 00:42:38,348 developed world. C.A.B. Int. Pbl. 288 pp. [ISBN] 455 00:42:38,349 --> 00:42:45,349 Buckley, R.. "Tourism and Environment". Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36: 397–416. 456 00:42:46,420 --> 00:42:49,079 doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-041210-132637.  External links 457 00:42:49,079 --> 00:42:53,809 Ecotourism at DMOZ The International Ecotourism Society 458 00:42:53,809 --> 00:42:58,429 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria

No comments: